Common at the beginning of the 19th century, this involved submerging people under water for as long as possible.
Conceived in the 1890s by Sigmund Freud, psychoanalysis looks to treat unacknowledged feelings from past events that are influencing current mood and behaviour.
First performed in 1935, the procedure consists of cutting the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex of the brain. It was likened by one psychiatrist to “putting in a brain needle and stirring the works”.
Devised in 1938 by Italian scientists, seizures are electrically induced in anaesthetised patients to treat serious depression. Used widely in the Forties and Fifties, ECT has made a comeback in the past two decades.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors and tricyclics were the most common antidepressants in the Fifties and Sixties before the development in the Seventies of SSRIs, the first purposefully designed depression medication.
First used in 1985, strong magnetic fields stimulate the brain via a coil held to the head. The patient is fully awake and alert during treatment.