With the rise
 of barefoot-style running and the five-fingered minimalist shoe, the science of stride mechanics – once only the arcane domain of running geeks – 
has entered the mainstream. Has running, the most elemental of sports, really become so complex? Does the average guy hoping to go out for a pain-free run really have to worry about all of this? MH joined forces with Runner’s World to bring you the best answers to these questions. You’ll find out how to clean up your stride, strengthen your legs, prevent injuries, train for a half-marathon without losing muscle, choose the right pair of shoes and stay motivated. Happy running!

Fix your form
Alberto Salazar watches as world-class runners (and recent Olympic medalists) Galen Rupp and Mo Farah knock out 300m repeats at Nike world headquarters near Beaverton, Oregon. The two men move with grace and efficiency. “It looks natural, but Galen and Mo work incessantly on their stride,” says Salazar, their coach. The same fundamentals that apply to Olympians also apply to you. You can run with fewer injuries, greater efficiency and ultimately more pleasure, says Salazar, if you follow the four simple rules below and do regular sprint drills (see “Speed School”).

Lean Forward
Aim for a slight forward tilt – about two or three degrees, says Salazar. You don’t want to lean too far forward or too far back. Too far forward and you shove your full body weight into the ground with each stride. Too far back, and you jam your heels.

DO THIS To promote a properly tilted and aligned neck and torso, allow your eyes to guide you. Instead of looking down at the ground, let your gaze settle on the horizon. Keep your chin tucked instead of letting it jut out.

Take a Hand
“The typical runner never thinks about his hands, but in fact, they’re crucial,” Salazar says. “Your arms should swing back and forward, not across your body.” With each stride, bring your hand to the vertical midpoint of your torso, but don’t let your hand cross that midline. If it does, your body will rock side to side.
DO THIS To release tension in your hands and arms, run with your hands forming a loose fist; imagine that each hand is carrying a pretzel that you don’t want to break.

Use Your Arms
The fourth key to a successful stride, Salazar says, is arm carriage. “Your shoulders need to be relaxed and sloping down, and your elbows should be slightly bent,” he says. “If you tighten your shoulders and let them point up instead, your arms start to flail and you lose that circular, forward-flowing drive.”
DO THIS As fatigue sets in, your shoulders tend to lift and tighten. When this happens, briefly drop your hands and shake out your arms to relax your muscles.

Be on the Ball
“If you land on your heel, you’re almost certainly over-striding,” says Salazar. “You’re pounding your leg into the ground with each stride and increasing your risk of injury. When you land on the balls of your feet, you flow with your forward energy.” A recent study of Harvard runners supports Salazar’s theory, it found that forefoot strikers have fewer injuries than heel strikers.
DO THIS Flick back your heel quickly after contact; visualise pawing the ground with the balls of your feet.

What you can learn about running from…

Toddlers

They tend to land on the balls of their feet. Run barefoot for two minutes after your regular run, says biomechanics researcher, Professor Peter Larson. You’ll adapt to the lack of cushioning by landing closer to your body.

The Road Runner

There’s a running method to the madness of the bird’s whirring legs. “Most top class runners have a stride rate around 90 steps per minute per foot,” says Bosch. Count yours, and if it’s well under 90, shorten your stride.

Forrest Gump

He went for a little run and ended up across the country. Runner’s World editor-at-large Amby Burfoot offers two takeaways: (1) aim to go a bit further or a bit faster each week; and (2) use races to explore places in South Africa.

Buffalo

Strong tendons help these heavy beast hurdle high obstacles and outrun horses in endurance-type races. 
To gain more spring, says decathlete Bryan Clay, do this plyometric circuit once or twice a week: box jump, single-leg hop, lateral jump (three sets of 10 reps each).