You may run more efficiently – and faster – by adopting a shorter, quicker stride. In a study from the University of Wisconsin at Madison, runners who increased their step rate – also known as turnover or cadence – by just 5% reduced the load on their knee joints by 20%. (A step rate increase of 10% led to a 34% easing.) You’ll avoid overstriding onto your heel and bouncing too high, says study author Dr Bryan Heiderscheit. His running clinic has helped people reduce lower-back pain, IT band soreness, and Achilles tendon pain. Start with 5%, and gradually step it up.

 – Brian Dalek